By George Grove
It is a reissue of the 1st variation of George Grove's Dictionary of song and Musicians, which has seeing that advanced to turn into the most important and such a lot authoritative paintings of its type in English. The venture grew within the making: the identify web page of quantity 1 (1879) refers to 'two volumes', yet by the point quantity four seemed in 1889 there has been additionally a 300-page appendix and a separate index quantity. The dictionary used to be a world project, with members from Paris, Leipzig, Berlin, Vienna and Boston along these established in Britain. It was once 'intended to provide a superb and lengthy said wish' bobbing up from the elevated curiosity in all points of tune, which used to be 'rapidly turning into a necessary department of education', and to cater for the pro whereas being available to the beginner. it's a attention-grabbing rfile of musical tastes and values within the past due Victorian interval.
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Even on the finish of the turbulent 20th century, the standard definition of chamber track turns out consistent and safe: song played by means of a small workforce of avid gamers, in general numbering among and 9, one on a component, often and not using a conductor (to motivate individuality as an important a part of its collectiveness), and emphasizing subtlety and intimacy over a grandeur larger learned within the symphony corridor or opera condo.
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15, which was written about 1796. He showed himself at once a master of the orchestra; but it is evident that at first he stepped cautiously in expressing himself with such resources. The 1st Symphony is less free and rich in expression, and has more elements of formality, than several works on a smaller scale which preceded it. This is explicable on the general ground that the orchestra, especially in those days, was not a fit exponent of the same kind of things which could be expressed by solo violins, or the pianoforte.
In orchestration and general style of expression these works seem immensely superior to the other early symphonies which have been described. They are scored for horns, flutes, oboi, fagotto, strings, with a figured bass for ' cembalo,' which in the symphonies previously noticed does not always appear. There is an abundance of unison and octave passages for the strings, but there is also good free writing, and contrasts between wind and strings; the wind being occasionally left quite alone. All the instruments come in occasionally for special employment, and considering the proportions of the orchestras of the time Bach's effects must have been generally clear and good.
One in C, scored for small orchestra, has an introductory Adagio, an Allegro of about the dimensions of Haydn's earlier first movements, with double bar in the middle; then an Andante con sordini (the latter a favourite device in central slow movements) ; then a Minuet and Trio, and, to end with, a Rondo in 2-4 time, Allegro non troppo. Others, in Eb and Bb, have much the same distribution of movements, but without the introductory Adagio. The style of them is rather mild and complacent, and not approaching in any way the interest or breadth of the works of his great contemporaries ; but the subjects are clear and vivacious, and the movements seem fairly developed.
A Dictionary of Music and Musicians (A.D. 1450-1880): By Eminent Writers, English and Foreign. Volume 4 by George Grove