Download e-book for kindle: A Discipline of Programming by Edsger W. Dijkstra

By Edsger W. Dijkstra

He starts by way of contemplating the questions, «What is an algorithm?» and «What are we doing after we program?» those questions lead him to an engaging digression at the semantics of programming languages, which, in flip, results in essays on programming language constructs, scoping of variables, and array references. Dijkstra then grants, as promised, a suite of lovely algorithms. those algorithms are some distance ranging, overlaying mathematical computations, several types of sorting difficulties, trend matching, convex hulls, and extra. simply because this can be an outdated e-book, the algorithms offered are often now not the simplest to be had. even though, the worth in interpreting A self-discipline of Programming is to soak up and comprehend the best way that Dijkstra considered those difficulties, which, in many ways, is extra invaluable than one thousand algorithms.

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Extra resources for A Discipline of Programming

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Das obige Theorem bildet die Grundiage filr den Reduktionsbegriff. Eine Reduktion ist eine Foige von Booleschen Termen, die durch gewisse Urnformungen auseinander hervorgehen. Die Urnformungen entstehen allgemein durch die Anwendung festgeIegter RegeIn und Gesetze. Dabei wird Instanzierung und Anwendung von Gesetzen unterschieden. Ftir eine Gleichung tl =t2 ftir Booiesche Terme nennen wir ftir Booiesche Terme tl, ... , tn und paarweise verschiedene Identifikatoren xl> ... , xn die Gleichung tl[tl/xI' ...

O! i=! 9999 ... mit 1 gleichgesetzt). Sie sind aber unterschiedlich schwer zu lesen, zu in- terpretieren und zu verstehen. Oem nieht mathematisch gebildeten Leser ist ihre Inter0 pretation unter Umstanden ganzlich fremd. Die Einfachheit der konkreten Reprasentation ist aus naheliegenden Grunden von Belang. Haufig ist eine Teilmenge S (von Reprasentationen von besonders einfachen auBeren Formen) der Reprasentationen R aIs Menge von Normalformen ausgezeiehnet. S heiBt dann NormalJormsystem. Existiert in einem Normalformsystem fiir jede Reprasentation mindestens eine semantisch aquivaIente Normalform, so heiSt das NormaIformsystem vollstiindig.

So wird haufig die Ausfiihrung eines Schritts von bestimmten Bedingungen abhangig gemacht. Oft wird auch die gestellte Aufgabe gelOst, indem wir die gleiche Aufgabe wiederum lOsen, allerdings mit etwas geanderten (einfacheren) Parametern. Wir sprechen von Wiederholung und von Rekursion. Klassische Elemente, wie sie in Beschreibungen von Algorithmen auftreten, sind also: - Ausfiihrung elementarer Schritte, - Fallunterscheidung tiber Bedingungen, - Wiederholung und Rekursion. Ahnliche Konzepte finden sich auch in den Befehlssatzen informationsverarbeitender Maschinen.

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A Discipline of Programming by Edsger W. Dijkstra

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