By National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (Editors)
This record addresses the dimension of radioactivity and bargains with the tremendous variety of assorted radioactive fabrics that experience develop into to be had within the final 3 a long time, from nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, for functions in medication, clinical examine, and undefined. It additionally addresses low-level radioactivity measurements for the tracking of radioactivity in environmental media, reminiscent of air and water, in reference to the keep an eye on of radioactive effluents linked to the construction of nuclear strength or using radionuclides.
Preface to the 1st version
Preface to the second one variation
desk of Contents
2. Physics of a few Radiation Detectors
three. basic or Direct Measurements of job in Radioactive Decay
four. oblique or Comparative Measurements of job in Radioactive Decay
five. recommendations for the guidance of normal resources for Radioactivity Measurements
6. The Assay of Radioactivity and the identity of Radionuclides in Environmental, clinical, and business Laboratories
eight. Measurements coverage, criteria, Traceability and the assertion of Uncertainty
Appendix A: Nuclear-Decay info for chosen Radionuclides
Appendix B: The data of Radioactive Decay
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Additional info for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures, 2nd edition
Thus, this type of counter does not allow of such high counting rates as does the proportional counter. It is also inferior because the slopes of the Geiger-Mullercounter plateau are steeper than those of proportional counters, values of less than 1 percent variation in counting rate per hundred volts being uncommon unless an artificial dead time is used to reduce spurious counts. When it is necessary to establish an actual counting rate, it is difficult to know a t which point on the plateau to count.
Where highenergy beta particles produce excited and ionized solvent molecules which are relatively isolated from each other, alpha and low-energy beta particles produce them in close proximity in regions of high ionization density in which energy is dissipated in nonradiative transitions. This process is referred to by Birks (1964) as ionization quenching. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the various energy-transfer steps in the liquid-scintillation process Birks (1964, 1970) has developed an expression relating the pulse amplitude at the anode to the energy deposited in the scintillator.
Sometimes inhibited, or the final light "signalnis "quenchednin the energy or light-transfer processes in the liquid. The details of the quenching processes, in particular chemical-structural effects on quenching, are not completely understood. 5 (25 'C) 'Unless otherwise stated, the values shown for q. t , and X are taken from Berlman (1971). All of these values were obtained for dilute solutions of the solutes in cyclohexane. 0 for 9,lO-diphenyl anthracene. Spectral matching factors, m = J r I(A)7(A)dA/Jo"I(X)dX, were taken from Birks (1975).
A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures, 2nd edition by National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (Editors)