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Thus, this type of counter does not allow of such high counting rates as does the proportional counter. It is also inferior because the slopes of the Geiger-Mullercounter plateau are steeper than those of proportional counters, values of less than 1 percent variation in counting rate per hundred volts being uncommon unless an artificial dead time is used to reduce spurious counts. When it is necessary to establish an actual counting rate, it is difficult to know a t which point on the plateau to count.

Where highenergy beta particles produce excited and ionized solvent molecules which are relatively isolated from each other, alpha and low-energy beta particles produce them in close proximity in regions of high ionization density in which energy is dissipated in nonradiative transitions. This process is referred to by Birks (1964) as ionization quenching. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the various energy-transfer steps in the liquid-scintillation process Birks (1964, 1970) has developed an expression relating the pulse amplitude at the anode to the energy deposited in the scintillator.

Sometimes inhibited, or the final light "signalnis "quenchednin the energy or light-transfer processes in the liquid. The details of the quenching processes, in particular chemical-structural effects on quenching, are not completely understood. 5 (25 'C) 'Unless otherwise stated, the values shown for q. t , and X are taken from Berlman (1971). All of these values were obtained for dilute solutions of the solutes in cyclohexane. 0 for 9,lO-diphenyl anthracene. Spectral matching factors, m = J r I(A)7(A)dA/Jo"I(X)dX, were taken from Birks (1975).

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Absolute X-Ray Wave-Length Measurements by Arthur Pehr Robert Wadlund

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