By A. Learner
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Algol 68 through Problems
To avoid the two-dimensional multiple 'monthchecker' in the program we could, if the implementation allows, use a multiple of multiples, '[1:12) [1:3) char monthcheck' or, better, '[1:12) string monthch'. An alternative is to use bytes, a basic type of character-string explained in chapter 7. Another solution introduces one of the most powerful and useful properties of Algol 68. New types can be defined in terms of standard types or those already defined. The mechanism is a mode declaration and an example is 'mode integer = int'.
D. is a leap year, we can use a procedure 'proc leap = (int m) bool : (if m mod 4 i= 0 then false elif m mod 100 i= 0 then true elif m mod 400 i=O then false else m mod 4000 i= 0 fi)' After this declaration, 'leap(y)' has the value true when y is a leap year and false otherwise. The procedure body of 'leap' could be replaced by (n mod 4 = 0 and n mod 100 i= 0 or n mod 400 = 0 and n mod 40004=0)', which is also exactly true when n is a leap year. In the previous case, with the if clause as procedure body, if m is not divisible by 4 (which happens 3/4 of the time), then m mod 4 i= 0 and the result false is obtained without further calculation.
Such globals should be avoided in general - they can too easily be out of scope or inadvertently altered by the procedure. All our procedure declarations have been identity declarations of the form proc name = a routine text. This adds the following to the BNF (identity decl ) : := proc ( identifier) = ( routine text ) (,(identifier)= (routine text))* (routine text) : := (void routine ) I (non-void routine) (void routine) : := ((( formaldec ) (,( formaldec ))*)) 1 void: (closed cl ) 48 AN INTRODUCTION TO ALGOL 68 (non-void routine) has a similar definition with (formal type) replacing void.
An Introduction to Algol 68 through Problems by A. Learner